Tuesday, 23 June 2009

Copenhagen


Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban area with a population of 1,167,569 (2009) and a metropolitan area with a population of 1,875,179 (2009). Copenhagen is situated on the Islands of Zealand and Amager.

First documented in the 11th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the beginning of the 15th century and during the 17th century under the reign of Christian IV it became an important regional centre. With the completion of the transnational Oresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region with around 3.7 million inhabitants covering an area of 20,869 km² (177/km²). Within this region, Copenhagen and Malmö are in the process of growing into one common metropolitan area. Copenhagen is the most visited city of the Nordic countries with around 1.3 million international tourists every year.

Copenhagen is a major regional center of culture, business, media, and science. In 2008 Copenhagen was ranked #4 by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine on their list of Top50 European Cities of the Future after London, Paris and Berlin.In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard, Copenhagen was ranked 14th in the world and 1st in Scandinavia. Life science, information technology and shipping are important sectors and research & development plays a major role in the city's economy. Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure with the largest airport in Scandinavia located 14 minutes by train from the city centre, has made it a regional hub and a popular location for regional headquarters as well as conventions.

Copenhagen has repeatedly been recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life and in 2008 it was singled out as the Most Liveable City in the World by international lifestyle magazine Monocle on their Top 25 Most Liveable Cities 2008 list. It is also considered one of the world's most environmentally friendly cities with the water in the inner harbor being so clean that it can be used for swimming and 36 % of all citizens commuting to work by bicycle, every day bicycling a total 1.1 million km. Since the turn of the millennium Copenhagen has seen a strong urban and cultural development and has been described as a boom town. This is partly due to massive investments in cultural facilities as well as infrastructure and a new wave of successful designers, chefs and architects

Wolves from Nordbaer:)

Dresden


This card is from Bine.Danke ,Bine!


Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Upper Sorbian: Drježdźany) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area.

Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The inner city was completely destroyed by the controversial Allied aerial bombing towards the end of World War II. The impact of the bombing, 40 years in the German Democratic Republic and contemporary city development have all completely changed the face of the city. Considerable restoration work has helped reconstruct some parts of historic Dresden, including the Dresden Frauenkirche and Katholische Hofkirche churches.

Dresden was a cultural and economic centre of the GDR. Since German reunification in 1990, Dresden has re-emerged as a cultural, political and economic centre in the eastern part of Germany.

Chatspam cards



Monday, 22 June 2009

Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park


The scenery in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park is dominated by fells surrounded by forests and mires in their natural state. Because the area’s nature is clean and beautiful and the terrain varying, the park is a wonderful place to hike, ski and enjoy the outdoors. The silhouette of the fells can be seen practically at all times and the marked trails lead visitors to the National Park’s most beautiful look-out spots. The picturesque beauty of the Pallastunturi Fells has made the area one of the Finnish national landscapes.

Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park is Finland’s third largest National Park. The area of this park has doubled now that Pallas-Ounastunturi National Park and Ylläs-Aakenus Nature Reserve have been combined to create Pallas-Yllästunturi. The most southern fell of the chain is Yllästunturi Fell. It is outside of the park’s boundaries and used as a tourist ski resort hill. The highest fell in this chain is Taivaskero, which is 807 metres high. In the north the view is of the gently sloping upland-like Ounastunturi Fells.

Geologically Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park is located between Northern Finland, Forest Lapland and Fell Lapland, making it a very varied and interesting habitat. In the park’s forests and on its fells there is a mix of northern and southern species. It is also the area in which visitors can see the transition area where peoples livelihood changes from farming to reindeer husbandry.

Coimbra

This card is a RAS card from portugese Coimbra meeting.I have another card from that meeting too ,but I can´t find it right now:(
This beautiful card is from Marta:)Thank you ,Marta

Coimbra is a city and municipality in Portugal. It served as the country's capital during the First Dynasty (12th Century) and remains home to the University of Coimbra, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world and one of the oldest in Europe.

According to the INE's census of 2001, the city proper had a population of 101,069[1] and the municipality had a population of 148,443 in a 319.4 km² land area. Over 430,000 people live in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Coimbra, comprising 16 municipalities and spreading over 3,372 km². It is the seat of the Centro region, as well as of the District of Coimbra and the Baixo Mondego subregion. Like most university cities, Coimbra is home to many students from elsewhere, including thousands of international students.

Coimbra is one of the most important urban centers of Portugal after the much larger Lisbon Metropolitan Area and Porto Metropolitan Area. Coimbra plays a role as the chief urban centre of the central part of the country. The city contains important archeological remains of structures dating from the time when it was the Roman town of Aeminium, such as its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus, as well as from the period when it served as the capital of Portugal (from 1139 to about 1260). In the Late Middle-Ages, declining as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre with the foundation of the University of Coimbra in 1290. The university, one of the oldest in Europe, attracts visitors from around the world due to its monumental buildings and history, making the city an important touristic destination.

The historic city of Coimbra is located in central Portugal, 120 km south of Porto, 195 km north of Lisbon. One of Portugal's biggest crossroads, Coimbra is served by the A1, the main highway of Portugal. It is set by the Mondego River, about 40 km east of Figueira da Foz, a neighbour coastal city with several beaches, summer and seaport facilities on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Just outside the municipality, there are also several picturesque mountain towns such as Lousã and Penacova and spa towns and villages such as Luso, Buçaco and Curia.

Land of the midnight sun

This card is showing midnight sun in Lapland,Finland

The midnight sun (also known as the black sun) is a natural phenomenon occurring in summer months at latitudes north and nearby to the south of the Arctic Circle, and south and nearby to the north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun remains visible at the local midnight. Given fair weather, the sun is visible for a continuous 24 hours, mostly north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. The number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the farther poleward one goes.

There are no permanent human settlements south of the Antarctic Circle, so the countries and territories whose populations experience it are limited to the ones crossed by the Arctic Circle, i.e. Canada, United States of America (Alaska), Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and extremities of Iceland. A quarter of Finland's territory lies north of the Arctic Circle and at the country's northernmost point the sun does not set for 73 days during summer. In Svalbard, Norway, the northernmost inhabited region of Europe, there is no sunset from approximately 19 April to 23 August. The extreme sites are the poles where the sun can be continuously visible for a half year.

The opposite phenomenon, polar night, occurs in winter when the sun stays below the horizon throughout the day.

Since the Earth's axis is tilted with respect to the ecliptic by approximately 23 degrees 27 minutes, the sun does not set at high latitudes in (local) summer. The duration of the midnight sun increases from one day during the summer solstice at the polar circle to approximately six months at the poles. At extreme latitudes, it is usually referred to as polar day. The length of the time the sun is above the horizon varies from 20 hours at the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle to 186 days at the poles.

At the poles themselves, the sun only rises once and sets once, each year. During the six months when the sun is above the horizon at the poles, the sun spends the days constantly moving around the horizon, reaching its highest circuit of the sky at the summer solstice.

Due to refraction, the midnight sun may be experienced at latitudes slightly below the polar circle, though not exceeding one degree (depending on local conditions). For example, it is possible to experience the midnight sun in Iceland, even though most of it (Grímsey being a notable exception) is slightly south of the Arctic Circle. Even the northern extremities of Scotland (and those places on similar latitudes) experience a permanent "dusk" or glare in the northern skies at these times.


White night

Locations above 60 degrees latitude that are south of the Arctic Circle or north of the Antarctic Circle experience midnight twilight instead. The sun is at the horizon to 6 degrees below the horizon, so that daytime activities, such as reading, are still possible without artificial light, on the condition it is not cloudy.

White nights have become a common symbol of Saint Petersburg, Russia, where they occur from about 11 June to 2 July, and the last 10 days of June are celebrated with cultural events.


Here,in Estonia we have also white nights from end of May till end of June.The whites night is 23 june´s night before 24.June

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight




Rafting the Rio Grande(Portland),Jamaica

Ras card from my fave jamaican girl-Wendy:)I love this card:)
Portland Parish
Portland, with its capital town Port Antonio, is a parish located on Jamaica's northeast coast. It is situated to the north of St. Thomas, and the east of St. Mary in Surrey county. It is one of the rural areas of Jamaica and is known for its great beaches.


The parish is situated at latitude 18°10' N and longitude 75°27'W. It extends from the highest peaks of the Blue Mountains, 2256 meters above sea-level, down to the north coast, and is noted for its fertile soil, beautiful scenery, and fine beaches. The parish lies in the direct path of the northeast trade winds and the Blue Mountain ridge to its south traps the moisture causing the parish to have the highest rainfall in the island. Port Antonio, its chief town and capital, has two harbours, the western one being sheltered by a small islet, Navy Island. Portland covers an area of 814 square kilometers, making it Jamaica's seventh largest parish.

The parish has a variety of complex landforms; the entire coastline is dotted with caves, bays, rivers, waterfalls and hills. There are fourteen caves, which include those at Buff Bay, Orange Bay, Hope Bay, Port Antonio, Boston Bay, Long Bay, Innis Bay and Nonsuch. There are also 17 rivers which form a network throughout the parish. The largest are the Rio Grande, Buff Bay and Hectors Rivers.

The population of Portland is an estimated 82000, 15,000 of which live in the capital town. black 89.8%, 1.2% white, 5.3% Asians 2.6% mixed race and 1.1% other.


Rafting

Rafting or whitewater rafting is a challenging recreational activity using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s.

Stockholm

Drottningholm Palace

The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family. It is located in Drottningholm. It is built on the island Lovön (in Ekerö Municipality of Stockholm County), and is one of Sweden's Royal Palaces. It was originally built in the late 16th century. Apart from being the private residency of the Swedish royal family, the castle is a popular tourist attraction.

The name Drottningholm (literally meaning "Queen's islet") came from the original renaissance building designed by Willem Boy, a stone palace built by John III of Sweden in 1580 for his wife Queen Katarina Jagellonica. This palace was preceded by a royal mansion called Torvesund. Hedwig Eleonora bought the castle in 1661, a year after her role as Queen of Sweden ended, but it burnt to the ground on 30 December that same year. Hedwig hired the famous Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder to design and rebuild the castle. In 1662 work began on the reconstruction of the building. With the castle almost complete, Nicodemus died in 1681. His son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger continued his work and completed the elaborate interior designs.

During the period of the reconstruction, Hedwig was head of the protectorate for the still underage King, Charles XI of Sweden. Sweden had grown to be a powerful country after the Peace of Westphalia. The position of the queen, essentially the ruler of Sweden, demanded an impressive residence located conveniently close to Stockholm.

The palace was given as a gift to the then Princess, later Queen, of Sweden, Louisa Ulrika of Prussia in 1744 when she married Adolf Frederick of Sweden, who became King of Sweden in 1751. During Louisa's ownership of Drottningholm the interior of the palace was transformed in a more sophisticated French rococo style. Louisa was also responsible for having the Drottningholm Palace Theatre rebuilt in a grand style after the more modest original building burnt down in 1762. In 1777, Louisa sold Drottningholm to the Swedish state. While it was owned by the Swedish state, Gustav III of Sweden, son of Louisa, lived in the palace.

For much of the 19th century, the palace was ignored and started to decay. This saw some change during the reign of Oscar I of Sweden. In 1907 a major restoration of the palace was carried out.

The current Swedish royal family have used Drottningholm as their primary residence since 1981. Since then the Palace has also been guarded by the Swedish Military in the same fashion as Stockholm Palace.

Stockholm


I have always loved Sweden.I feel like I belong there.I don´t know why,but I have this feeling.

This wonderful Stockholm card is from Markus.He sent me this from his trip :)Tack,Markus!

Stockholm is the capital and largest city of Sweden. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the official residence of the Swedish monarch. As of 2008, the Stockholm metropolitan area is home to around 21% of Sweden's population and contributes 35% of Sweden's gross domestic product. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden with a population of 814,418 in the city, 1.3 million in the urban area and around 2 million in the metropolitan area.

Stockholm has been the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden since the 13th century. Its strategic location on fourteen islands on the south-central east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago, has been historically important. Since the city is built on islands and known for its beauty, tourists often call the city "Venice of the North". The city is known for its beauty, its historical buildings & architecture, its water and its many parks. According to Euromonitor, Stockholm is the second most visited city of the Nordic Countries, with around 1 million international tourists every year. Stockholm has one of the largest shopping districts in Scandinavia.


Stockholm is located on Sweden's south-central east coast, where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continuous with Stockholm archipelago. The geographical city centre is situated on the water, in the bay Riddarfjärden.

Over 30% of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30% is made up of parks and green spaces; in 2009, Stockholm was awarded title of first European Green Capital by the European Commission.


Monday, 15 June 2009

Heippa!


From Iita:)Thank you!

Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided gorge carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is largely contained within the Grand Canyon National Park — one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, and visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery.

Longstanding scientific consensus has been that the canyon was created by the Colorado River over a six million year period. The canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6.4 to 29 km) and attains a depth of over a mile (1.83 km) (6000 feet). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. The "canyon began in the west, followed by another that formed in the east. Eventually, the two broke through and met as a single majestic rent in the earth some six million years ago. [...] The merger apparently occurred where the river today bends to the west, in the area known as the Kaibab Arch."

Before European immigration, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon ("Ongtupqa" in Hopi language) a holy site and made pilgrimages to it. The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540

Bulldog

This cute bulldog is from Buvveskipi:)His smile is so cute:)This card is showing british bulldog.

A Bulldog, colloquially known as the British Bulldog, or English Bulldog, is a type of dog which traces its ancestry to England. It should not be confused with other varieties such as the American Bulldog or the French Bulldog, which has a similar appearance.


The term "bulldog" was first used around 1568 and might have been applied to other various ancestors of modern bulldog breeds before adorning the breed we recognize today.

It has been theorized that bulldogs were bred in England as a cross between the Mastiff and the Pug, though their genetic origin is debated. Since the pug did not arrive in Europe until the late 16th century, it is unlikely that the breed is an original progenitor of the Bulldog. The Bulldog and the Mastiff are widely thought to have common roots in the ancient Pugnaces Britanniae of Great Britain.

In the 1600s, bulldogs were used for bullbaiting (as well as bearbaiting)--a gambling sport popular in the 17th century with wagers laid while trained bulldogs leapt at a bull lashed to a post. The bulldog's typical means of attack included latching onto the animal's snout and attempted to suffocate it.

However, the bulldog's early role was not limited to sport. In mid-17th century New York, bulldogs were used as a part of a city-wide round-up effort led by governor Richard Nicolls. Because cornering and leading wild bulls was dangerous, bulldogs were trained to seize a bull by its nose long enough for a rope to be secured around its neck.. The use of dogs for fighting with other dogs or other animals was banned in the United Kingdom by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, but Bulldogs as pets were continually promoted by dog dealer Bill George.

In time, the original Old English Bulldog was crossed with the pug. The outcome was a shorter, wider dog with a brachycephalic skull. Though today's bulldog looks tough, he cannot perform the job he was originally created for, as he cannot withstand the rigors of running and being thrown from a bull, and cannot grip with such a short muzzle.

The oldest single breed specialty club is The Bulldog Club (England), which was formed in 1878. Members of this club met frequently at the Blue Post pub on Oxford Street in London. There they wrote the first standard of perfection for the breed. In 1891 the two top bulldogs, Orry and Dockleaf, competed in a contest to see which dog could walk the farthest. Orry was reminiscent of the orginal bulldogs, lighter boned and very athletic. Dockleaf was smaller and heavier set, more like modern bulldogs. Dockleaf was declared the winner that year. Although some argued that the older version of the bulldog was more fit to perform, the modern version’s looks won over the fans of the breed because they proved they were equally as fit and athletic in the walking competition.

At the turn of the 20th century, Ch. Rodney Stone became the first Bulldog to command a price of $5000 when he was bought by controversial Irish-American political figure Richard Croker.

A Ladybug

This beautiful ladybug is from dear friend,Iita:)Kiitos,Iita:)


Coccinellidae is a family of beetles, known variously as ladybirds (British English, Australian English, South African English), ladybugs (North American English) or lady beetles (preferred by some scientists). Lesser-used names include ladyclock, lady cow, and lady fly.

They are small insects, ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm (0.04 to 0.4 inches), and are commonly yellow, orange, or scarlet with small black spots on their wing covers, with black legs, head and antennae. A very large number of species are mostly or entirely black, grey, or brown and may be difficult for non-entomologists to recognize as coccinellids (and, conversely, there are many small beetles that are easily mistaken as such, like tortoise beetles).

Coccinellids are found worldwide, with over 5,000 species described, more than 450 native to North America alone.

A few species are pests in North America and Europe, but they are generally considered useful insects as many species feed on aphids or scale insects, which are pests in gardens, agricultural fields, orchards, and similar places. The Mall of America, for instance, releases thousands of ladybugs into its indoor park as a natural means of pest control for its gardens.


I love ladybugs ,they are soo cute :)


Grüsse aus Goch/Greetings from Goch

From Martina.
Goch (archaic spelling: Gog) is a town in the district of Kleve, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated near the border with the Netherlands, approx. 12 km south of Kleve, and 27 km southeast of Nijmegen.

Waterfall in Hawaii

This beautiful card is from Sandpainter:)It is showing a waterfall in Hawaii.

The card is saying so:"Hawaii´s lush rainforset and beautiful waterfalls are world famous."
I think so too.This card is breathtaking and clorful and relaxing:)
Thank you,Poong:)

Saturday, 13 June 2009

Southern Cross


The Southern Cross can always be seen from New Zealand and is the most recognised constellation in the Southern Hemisphere.
Southern Cross
is the English name of Crux Australis, a constellation visible in the Southern Hemisphere.


Crux (pronounced /ˈkrʌks/, genitive Crucis /ˈkruːsɨs/) is the smallest of the 88 modern constellations, but is one of the most distinctive. Its name is Latin for cross, and it is dominated by a cross-shaped asterism that is commonly known as the Southern Cross because throughout this Common Era it has been easily visible from the southern hemisphere, at practically any time of year, although it is also visible near the horizon from tropical latitudes of the northern hemisphere, for a few hours every night, during the spring months; for instance, from Cancun -- or any other place al latitude 25º N or less, with unobstructed view to the South—at around 10 pm, at the end of April.

Crux is bordered by the constellations Centaurus, which surrounds it on three sides, and Musca.

Crux was visible to the Ancient Greeks, who regarded it as part of the constellation Centaurus. At the latitude of Athens in 1000 BC, Crux was clearly visible, though low in the sky. However, the precession of the equinoxes gradually lowered its stars below the European horizon, and they were eventually forgotten by the inhabitants of northern latitudes. By AD 400, most of the constellation never rose above the horizon for Athenians.

Crux was rediscovered by Europeans during the Age of Discovery. Amerigo Vespucci mapped Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri as well as the stars of modern Crux on his expedition to South America in 1501.

The separation of Crux from Centaurus is generally attributed to the French astronomer Augustin Royer in 1679. Other historians attribute the invention of Crux to Petrus Plancius in 1613, noting that the constellation was later published by Jakob Bartsch in 1624.